Schauffele was the individual winner of the 2011 California State High School Championship (California Interscholastic Federation, CIF), playing for Scripps Ranch High School. After graduating from high school, Schauffele played his freshman year in college at Long Beach State University, where he garnered the 2012 Big West Conference Freshman of the Year as well as the 2012 First Team All-Big West awards.
On April 14, Schauffele tied for second in the Masters Tournament, one stroke behind champion Tiger Woods. After opening with a 1-over 73, recorded rounds of 65-70-68 to finish T2 at the Masters Tournament with Dustin Johnson and Brooks Koepka. Schauffele's finish at the Masters Tournament represented his third top-five in eight starts at major championships (T5 at 2017 U.S. Open, T2 at 2018 Open Championship, T2 at 2019 Masters Tournament). He led the field with 25 birdies, becoming the third player since 1980 to have 25 or more birdies in a single Masters, joining Phil Mickelson (25 in 2001) and Jordan Spieth (28 in 2015).